Indonesia is part of the Coral Triangle, a region that contains the highest diversity of marine life in the world. More people live close to reefs in Indonesia than anywhere else on the planet. Indonesia’s coral reefs face significant global and local threats including climate change, overfishing, destructive fishing and water pollution from coastal development.

CORAL has 10 years of experience working in Indonesia on coral reef conservation. In recent years, we have concentrated on supporting communities and the government in the co-management of a network of Locally Managed Marine Areas (LMMA) in northern Bali. CORAL’s work in Indonesia focuses on our Intact Reef Ecosystems and Science of Adaptation Initiatives.

We work in two priority regions on the northern coast of Bali, which together form the beginnings of an Indonesian Adaptive Reefscape — a network of healthy reefs that can adapt to climate change because it is diverse, connected and large.


Bali is a popular tourist destination, and one of Indonesia’s best-known islands thanks to its incredible surf beaches and dive sites. However, Bali’s beautiful natural resources are under intense pressure. Coastal development and unsustainable tourism activities threaten a marine environment that is already vulnerable from decades of coral mining, water pollution and destructive fishing practices like cyanide fishing. To safeguard their marine resources, many communities in northern Bali have independently created LMMAs. These smaller LMMAs along with expansions and defined zones form the basis for larger, government-recognized LMMAs, of which there are three in Buleleng and three in Karangasem. CORAL refers to all six together as the LMMA network in northern Bali.

Through our Intact Reef Ecosystems Initiative, CORAL works with partners to build the capacity necessary to manage the LMMA network in northern Bali. By working directly with local communities to create effective management plans that support local interests and ensure sustainability, we create win-wins for communities and coral reefs. LMMA management plans include measures to restore reefs damaged by past actions (e.g., coral mining and cyanide fishing) and prevent further degradation of existing reefs by minimizing the adverse impacts of tourism like overcrowding and reef trampling. We are currently initiating a project that will compare various coral restoration methods to develop a set of field-tested best practice guidelines.

A key component of our work in Bali includes establishing local financing mechanisms to support LMMA management and community development. We have helped several communities harness tourism dollars from visitor fees and the sale of souvenirs and local products, for financing the day-to-day management and ongoing monitoring of LMMAs. These funds also support community development and provide sustainable livelihoods (e.g., a former aquarium fisher may learn the skills to become a dive guide).


  • 2007: CORAL begins working in Indonesia, with an initial focus on Raja Ampat
  • 2009: CORAL helps establish a voluntary dive fee system that funds effective law enforcement patrols around Misool Island (Raja Ampat)
  • 2011: The regency of Buleleng officially designates three MPAs: Tejakula, Lovina and Pemuteran
  • 2012: CORAL and partners encourage the Raja Ampat government to sign a shark and manta ray sanctuary into law, protecting sharks and rays across four million hectares of coastal and marine habitat the first legislation of its kind in Southeast Asia
  • 2013: CORAL builds capacity to manage and govern the LMMA network across two regencies in northern Bali: Buleleng and Karangasem
  • 2014: CORAL helps the communities of Amed-Jemeluk and Tulamben in Karangasem create volunteer dive fee programs that raise funds to support local conservation activities
  • 2015: CORAL works with local partner Lensa Masyarakat Nusantara (LMN) in Karangasem to implement PhotoVoices, a project that encourages locals to identify conservation priorities by photographing environmental issues in their community2016: CORAL helps establish a sustainable livelihood project in the community of Tulamben – a souvenir stand that showcases locally-made products


I Made Jaya Ratha (“Jaya”)
Program Coordinator
Bali, Indonesia
Veronica Niken Dewi
Program Coordinator
Bali, Indonesia
Sarah Eminhizer
Associate Program Director
Oakland, California (HQ)
Jos Hill
Associate Programs Director
Oakland, California (HQ)



Map of CORAL's Field Sites in Bali, Indonesia

CORAL’s Field Sites in Bali, Indonesia

Additional Resources