Primary Treatment

This initial stage involves the removal of large solids and sediment through screening and sedimentation. It is essential for reducing the load of organic matter and debris that can clog treatment systems.

Secondary Treatment

In this phase, biological processes are used to break down organic matter and nutrients. Activated sludge processes, biofilters, and oxidation ponds are common methods. These processes rely on microorganisms to consume organic pollutants and convert them into harmless byproducts.

Tertiary Treatment

This advanced stage targets the removal of remaining nutrients, pathogens, and chemical contaminants. Techniques such as membrane filtration, advanced oxidation, and activated carbon adsorption are employed. Tertiary treatment ensures that the water meets high-quality standards before discharge.


To eliminate pathogens, treated wastewater undergoes disinfection through methods like chlorination, UV radiation, or ozonation. This step is crucial for preventing the spread of diseases and protecting both marine life and human health.

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